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Friday, May 24, 2013

Stunning Wonders of the World Ice

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From: Pramod Agrawal <>
Date: Fri, May 17, 2013 at 3:05 PM
Subject: [] 11 Stunning Wonders of the World Ice
11 Stunning Wonders of the World Ice
In polar and other cold regions there is so beautiful, unusual and you may say, a unique education from ice, snow and water, that the mere sight of them is breathtaking. Most of these wonders of nature can visit the only scientists and adventurers of the few that did not stop the significant physical and financial costs. Because of its instability and the specific locations of these formations can be seen only at certain times of the year.

01. Blue River, Greenland
This river is a haven for Greenland kayaking. Petermann glacier meltwater (Petermann) fill the low-lying regions of the stunning blue water.
The river changes its shape every season, depending on changes in the flow of melt water. The bright blue color of the river due to glacial silt.
02. Glacial waterfalls on Spitsbergen (Svalbard), Norway
Title Svalbard (also known as Svalbard), Norwegian translates as "cold coast". Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic, in the North of Norway and Europe. It is located about 650 kilometers north of mainland Europe, midway between mainland Norway and the North Pole. Despite its close proximity to the North Pole, Spitsbergen is relatively warm, thanks to the warming effect the Gulf Stream, which makes it suitable for habitation. Generally, Svalbard is the northernmost populated region on the planet.
Svalbard Islands occupy a total area of ??62,050 square kilometers, about 60% of which is covered by a glacier, the edges of which go deep into the sea. Giant glacier Brosvelbrin (Bråsvellbreen), located on the second largest island in the archipelago, called the North-East Land (Nordaustlandet), extends for 200 kilometers. With 15-20-meter-high ice edge of the glacier waterfalls fall hundreds of meltwater. These waterfalls can be seen only in the warmer months.
03. Crystal Cave, Iceland
This cave in the glacier ice formed as a result of glacial mill, or floss. This phenomenon occurs when rain and melt water from the glacier surface is formed in the streams, and flows into a glacier through its cracks. Waterfall makes a hole in the ice, and collected water flows to lower heights, forming long ice caves with access, formed at the edge of the glacier.
Fine-grained and wind-borne sediments give dingy color once frozen streams of melt water, while the top of the cave has a dark blue color. Due to the fast movement of the glacier on bumpy terrain is about 1 meter per day, this ice cave cracked at the end, forming a deep vertical slit. This allows non-directional sunlight get into the cave from both sides, providing an ice tunnel steady.
The cave can be accessed from the coast, at 7 meter hole. The tunnel is gradually narrowed, and finally its height is no more than 1.2 meters. Ice caves in general are unstable and could collapse at any moment. They are safe to visit only in the winter when cold temperatures severely frozen ice. The cave is constantly heard a cracking sound. They heard not because the cave is about to come crashing down, but because the cave moves with the glacier itself. Each time the glacier moved a millimeter - heard loud noises.
04. Glacier Briksdalsbreen (Briksdalsbreen), Norway
Briksdalsbreen glacier is one of the most accessible and most famous glacier slopes Yustedalsbreen (Jostedalsbreen). It is located in Norway and is part of the National Park Yustedalsbreen. Briksdalsbreen ends small glacial lake Briksdal (Briksdalsbrevatnet), which is located at 346 meters above sea level.
Tourists from all over the world come to see the beautiful glacier Briksdalsbreen so majestically set among waterfalls and high peaks.
Donning the appropriate equipment, and carefully fulfilling all recommendations instructors, visitors can take part in a completely safe, but incredibly exciting journey through thousands of years of ice mass.
5. Ice Canyon (Birthday Canyon), Greenland
Ice depth canyon formed by melt water is 45 meters. This photo was taken in 2008. Line on its walls, located on the edge of the canyon, shows the stratigraphic layers of ice and snow, which were postponed for many years.
Leuinter Adam (Adam LeWinter) stands on the edge of the Ice Canyon, on a ledge, called "Moab» (Moab). Black deposits in the bottom of the channel is the cosmic dust - fine dust to be applied by the wind, which settles and accumulates in the snow on glaciers or ice caps.
06. Glacier "elephant foot» (Elephant-Foot Glacier), Greenland
Arctic Glacier "elephant foot" is located in the north of Greenland. The northern zone, below the glacier is the ablation zone, split flow of melt water. It clearly differs in color from pure white surface of the upper zone, where snow accumulates.
This unique glacier is a striking geographic location in the north-east coast of Greenland (81 ° N).
07. Frozen Wave (Frozen Wave), Antarctica
This unique wave is frozen in Antarctica. She was discovered by an American scientist Travuylonom Tony (Tony Travouillon) in 2007.
In these photographs captured not a giant wave, somehow frozen in an instant. This formation is made up of blue ice, which is a strong proof that it was not the wave of water.
Blue ice is formed during compression and release of the frozen ice bubbles. The ice looks blue because, when light passes through thick ice, the blue light is reflected, and the red light is absorbed.
Thus, the dark blue color indicates that the ice formed over a long period of time, not immediately. Subsequent melting and re-freezing for many seasons have given this education sleek look, reminiscent of the wave.
08. Striped Icebergs (Striped Icebergs), Southern Ocean
Most often, the icebergs have blue and green stripes, but occasionally can be found and brown stripes. This phenomenon is common in the Southern Ocean. Striped icebergs with multi color stripes, including yellow, brown, black and blue, are quite common in the cold waters around Antarctica. Icebergs are formed when large chunks of ice break off from the ice shelf, and fall into the sea.
Because glaciers are formed due to the snow falling on Antarctica thousands of years of glacial ice is fresh water. Thus, it appears that the floating fresh ice interacts with salt water. Sea water, in turn freezes on contact with superholodnym glacier covering its crust. The top layer of ice formed by sea water contains organic matter and minerals. Lapped by the waves, and blown by the wind, ice paint striking colored stripes of varying shapes and textures.
Iceberg appears white because of tiny bubbles, buried in the ice, as well as by light scattering. Blue stripes formed when a crack in the ice shield is filled with meltwater and freezes quickly. In this case, the bubbles can not form. When the water is rich in algae, stripes are painted in green and many other colors.
09. Ice Towers of Mount Erebus, Antarctica
Hundreds of ice spiers towers located on Mount Erebus (height 3800 m above sea level), look like a one-day stubble on the face of the giant. Constantly active volcano, probably the only place in Antarctica, where fire and ice meet, interact and create something unique encompassing both their nature.
Towers can reach up to 20 meters in height and look almost alive, as they produce jets of steam in the south polar sky. Part of the volcanic vapor freezes in the inner parts of the towers, and increasing their breadth and height.
10. "Fang" - Frozen Waterfall in Vail (The Fang in Vail - Frozen Waterfall), USA
"Fang" is a waterfall, located near the town of Vail, Colorado. A huge column of ice formed from this waterfall only during unusually cold winters, and when this happens, the column height is about 50 meters in height and the width of its base has 8 meters.
11. Kalgaspory (Penitentes), Chile and Argentina
Kalgaspory this amazing ice spikes formed naturally on the high plains located in the Andean region, which rise more than 4000 meters above sea level. These pegs are called ice kalgaspory. They may be different from a few centimeters (resembling grass, creeping along the ground) to 5 meters (giving the impression of the ice forest). Their peaks are growing towards the sun. Kalgaspory slowly and gradually appear when the snow starts to melt from the first sunlight.
Andean peoples ascribe this phenomenon quickly winds blowing in the region, which is actually just part of the process. The wind is very limited role in the formation of these beautiful statues. As recent scientific observations: sunlight, served on ice, heats it, in fact, part of the light that hit the ice, playing a variety of reflections inside pieces of ice, which leads to non-uniform melting. Well, those parts of the ice that did not melt, generate statues of unusual shapes, known as kalgaspory.

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